1959 Written Constitution

Saturday, 16 October 2010

What is Rubber?
A yellowish, amorphous, elastic material obtained from the milky sap or latex of various tropical plants, especially the rubber tree, and vulcanized, pigmented, finished, and modified into products such as electric insulation, elastic bands and belts, tires, and containers. Also called caoutchouc, India rubber.
The Rubber Industry.
-The rubber tree was originally found in Amazon jungle of Brazil in South America.
- In first half of 20th century, rubber was the most important cash crop for export in Brunei.
- In 1876, Rubber seed were sent to Botanic Garden in Singapore.


  Rubber Plantation in Brunei.
-Rubber seedling were first introduced in Brunei in1908 by a Johore Malaya, Haji Mohammad Daud.
-In 1980, more rubber plantation opened in Brunei.Factors responsible for the growth of the industry:
·         Invention of the modern car-increased the world demands for rubber.
·         Big profit obtained from rubber attracted locals to grow rubber.
-It became important crop in S.E.A than coconut and fruits tree.

Large rubber estates were mainly owned by European companies which included:
-          the Brunei estated limited;
-          the Liverpool (Brunei) Para Rubber Estates limited; and
-          The British (Borneo) Rubber and Land Company.

-Medium-sized of 25 to 100 acres were mainly owned by the Chinese, while smallholdings of about one acre were mainly owned by the Malays.
The important estates near Brunei Town were:
·         The Kumbang Pasang Estate and the Gadong Estate.
In 1919, Brunei district replaced Temburong as the main on rubber planting.







 Rubber Production in Brunei.

-          In 1918, the Inspector of Agriculture was appointed to advise small holders on rubber planting.

-          The result, in 1914 the acreage of rubber industry increased so much, it was estimated at 15,500 acres of which nearly half owned by 12 companies and the rest by small-holders.

-          In 1914 Brunei exported rubber to Britain and The United States.

-          Brunei’s also produced another type of latex from the Wild Jelutong, mostly found in Belait and Tutong. The tapping of these tress was mostly done by Iban tappers.

-          In 1915 the first exported of wild jelutong and reaching peak in the years of 1925-1929.

-          In 1933, the government established an Agriculture Station in Kilanas. The rubber station started nursery and distribute smaller seedling to small holders.

-          1936, A Malay officer from the Rubber Research Institute (RRI) of Malaya organized demonstration on the proper treatment and smoking Rubber.
 Workers in Rubber Estate.
-          Most of the workers in Europeans rubber estate were Tamil, Javanese, Chinese and Malays.

-          In 1925, Tamil workers were recruited from The Federated Malay State. And in 1926 beginning with 44 people increased to 121.

-          In 1930, many rubber workers were laid down and some Chinese were sent back to China.  However, in 1933 no more Tamil worker in Rubber estates.




 The Decline of Rubber Industry.




Rubber industry in Brunei began to decline.

Reason:
1) The demand for rubber was reduced, during the First World War shard decline of the price.

2) After the war, the surplus/remaining rubber flooded the world market, led to further drop in rubber prices.

On 1st November 1922, The Brunei State Council passed the Export Rubber Restriction Enactment.

Under the enactment:
1) Fines were imposed on those who were tapping undersized tress or over-tapping rubber tress.

31ST October 1928 was the repealed of the Enactment.


In 1934, Brunei’s rubber output was further reduced by the International Rubber Regulation Agreement.

Under this agreement:
1)    Each country was allowed to produced and export a fixed amount of rubber.
2)   The regulation remained in force until the Second World War.

Luckily, Brunei did not suffer as badly other rubber-producing countries such as Malaya and Indonesia because of its small outputs.


Made Of Rubber







Rubber Glove






 Rubber Process.


DONE BY: ZULAIKHA BINTI HASSAN

2 comments:

  1. Very Interesting Zulaikha - Sir

    ReplyDelete
  2. wahhh,lawa lah jolll..caya la bebbb..haha-ayuni

    ReplyDelete