1959 Written Constitution

Wednesday, 27 October 2010

Chapter 1: Brunei’s Social Structure, Political Systems and Economy.

  1. Social, Economic and Political Conditions in Brunei.

Reasons for the decline of Brunei in the 16th and 17th centuries:
a.     The kingdom of Mataram and Java and the Dutch began to spread their influence in Southern Borneo.
b.     The spread of the Spanish influence in Manila ( Philippines )
c.     The rise of Sulu sultanate in Southern Philippines.


Reasons for the spread of of Brunei’s influence in Northern Borneo and Sarawak until the end of the 19th century:
  1. The need of humans resources, which was the basis of the power of the Sultan and Royal family.
  2. Brunei’s position as a maritime trade centre in a Malay world which was heavily geared towards trade.

Main functions of a river mouth:
  1. The Brunei’s rulers imposed taxes on the natives who used their rivers.
  2. Therefore, the rivers became a source of income for the Brunei rulers.
  3. The native also supplied goods to the Malays who lived at the river mouths.

  1. The Hierachy of Traditional Administration in Brunei.

Position of the Sultan in the administration of the country:
  1. He was the head of government, religion and institution.
  2. In the social context, the Sultan also occupied the highest position.

The 4 Wazirs and their duties:
  1. Pengiran Bendahara – He was in charge of home affairs.
  2. Pengiran Di-Gadong – He was in charge of revenue and income.
  3. Pengiran Temenggong – He was in charge of maritime affairs and defence.
  4. Pengiran Pemancha – He was in charge of trade affairs.

There are TWO classes of Manteris;
               1) Manteri Berchiri.
2)      Manteri Tidak Berchiri.

There are THERE titles given to Manteris;
1)       Pehin,
2)      Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong; and
3)       Pehin Jawatan Dalam.
Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong.

The TWO groups of Manteri Tidak Berchiri are Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.

The THREE titles of Manteri Hulubalang;
  1. Panglima,
  2. Pateh; and
  3. Damong.

TWO titles given to Manteri Pendalaman were Orang Kaya and Dato.

Difference between Manteri Berchiri and Manteri Tidak Berchiri;
  1. Manteri Berchiri were chosen from the Malay Aristocrats.  
  2. Manteri without official credentials were known as Manteri Tidak Berchiri.
  3. They were divided into TWO groups; Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.
  4. The Manteri Hulubalang were Malays who lived near the palace.
  5. The title Manteri Pendalaman was reserved for the chiefs of tribes and those who had influence over the natives in the Brunei’s territories.
  6. They were given the titles of Orang Kaya and Dato.

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