- Social, Economic and Political Conditions in Brunei.
Reasons for the decline of Brunei in the 16th and 17th centuries:
a. The kingdom of Mataram and Java and the Dutch began to spread their influence in Southern Borneo.
b. The spread of the Spanish influence in Manila ( Philippines )
c. The rise of Sulu sultanate in Southern Philippines.
Reasons for the spread of of Brunei’s influence in Northern Borneo and Sarawak until the end of the 19th century:
- The need of humans resources, which was the basis of the power of the Sultan and Royal family.
- Brunei’s position as a maritime trade centre in a Malay world which was heavily geared towards trade.
Main functions of a river mouth:
- The Brunei’s rulers imposed taxes on the natives who used their rivers.
- Therefore, the rivers became a source of income for the Brunei rulers.
- The native also supplied goods to the Malays who lived at the river mouths.
- The Hierachy of Traditional Administration in Brunei.
Position of the Sultan in the administration of the country:
- He was the head of government, religion and institution.
- In the social context, the Sultan also occupied the highest position.
The 4 Wazirs and their duties:
- Pengiran Bendahara – He was in charge of home affairs.
- Pengiran Di-Gadong – He was in charge of revenue and income.
- Pengiran Temenggong – He was in charge of maritime affairs and defence.
- Pengiran Pemancha – He was in charge of trade affairs.
There are TWO classes of Manteris;
1) Manteri Berchiri.
2) Manteri Tidak Berchiri.
There are THERE titles given to Manteris;
2) Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong; and
3) Pehin Jawatan Dalam.
|Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong.|
The TWO groups of Manteri Tidak Berchiri are Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.
The THREE titles of Manteri Hulubalang;
- Pateh; and
TWO titles given to Manteri Pendalaman were Orang Kaya and Dato.
Difference between Manteri Berchiri and Manteri Tidak Berchiri;
- Manteri Berchiri were chosen from the Malay Aristocrats.
- Manteri without official credentials were known as Manteri Tidak Berchiri.
- They were divided into TWO groups; Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.
- The Manteri Hulubalang were Malays who lived near the palace.
- The title Manteri Pendalaman was reserved for the chiefs of tribes and those who had influence over the natives in the Brunei’s territories.
- They were given the titles of Orang Kaya and Dato.