1959 Written Constitution

Thursday, 14 October 2010


1) what is Residential System?
-Under the system, the British Resident would advice the sultan on all matters of administration except on religion and customs.

2) What were the changes made by the British to Brunei?
1-Administrative Changes
2-Economical Changes
3-Political Changes
4-Social –Welfare- improved

“Residential System and its aftermath”

Political Changes-Establishment of the state council

   -what were the roles of the state council?
     *Review and pass bills called enactments
     *Deal with legal appeals arising from
      cases previously heard by the kadhi courts

Economic Changes-Agriculture encouraged
        -Increased commercial activities 
        -Greater freedom of trade

 Improved social welfare                
-Establishment of sanitary boards, town planning bodies and police office
-Improved communication

Transfer of Monopoly Rights-Before 1906,Monopoly rights were controlled by Chinese Businessmen
-They had the Rights to charge taxes on import and 
export goods such as TOBACCO,OPIUM and RUBBER

-Under the Residential System ,in 1914 the British Government bought back most of the Monopoly Rights except the Monopoly Rights on coal mining owned by William Cowie             

Changes of the Land Rights-The traditional Land Rights were:  
       Kerajaan,Kuripan & Tulin
-It was replaced by the Land Enactment in 1907,all income received from these land become state revenue
-Compensation were paid to Sultan and Wazirs for the loss of rights.They were allowed to keep some land around their Residence without paying tax or rent
-Land enactments 1907F Land Codes 1908
-Land Codes :people must have land grant and land titles
-All lands without titles became state land
-However there were many problems in enforcing
  the system

Law and order-Up to 1912,Brunei Law was based on THREE systems 
                                        *Hukum kanun
     *Hukum Syariah
    -The Law markers were the Sultan and Wazirs 
    -Under Residential System,the British introduced Civil Laws and other laws which deal with Social and Economic matters

An improve Police Laws-Before 1906, there was no police force except in Muara maintained by Brooke
 -The headmen was responsible to keep the law and order in Brunei
-After 1906, the first Police force was set up in Brunei combined with Labuan
-It was consisted of just one Pathan and one Sikh
-After 1921,Brunei had a separate Police Force consisted of 39 men