1959 Written Constitution

Monday, 18 October 2010

Brunei's Social Structure, Political systems & Economy

MAIN REASONS WHY BRUNEI BEGAN TO RISE IN THE 19TH CENTURY;
ㅁ Human Resources
ㅁ They collect taxes


~BRUNEI TRADING CENTRE IN BORNEO~
ㄹ Natives supplied Merchandise (goods) for protection from the Sultan.
ㄹ Example of Natives;
                              ㅇ Iban
                              ㅇ Dayak
                              ㅇ Murut

(Picture example of a Dayak woman)

~BRUNEI TRADITIONAL POLITICAL CHECKPOINT~
ㄴ Why were POLITICAL CHECKPOINTs set up at the mouth of Brunei River?
: To control tribes.

ㄴ What is DAERAH?
: Daerah is 'Political Checkpoint' at the mouth of the river in order to control the people who lived near the river.

ㄴ Who is the head of TRIBES and where?
: They are THREE: - The Pengirans; in charge in; Oya, Mukah & Igau
                           - The Sharifs; in charge in; Sekrang, Serebas, Seriki, Telok, Marudu
                           - The Dato; in charge in; Sarawak, Samarahan, Sadong, Kalakah


~SULTAN AS THE HEAD OF THE ISLAMIC RELIGION~
ㅂ Who is SULTAN?
: - Sultan is the head of GOVERNMENT & RELIGION.
ROLE? -----> / To develop and spread the TEACHING OF ISLAM.
                   / To Introduce new system (islamic teaching)

ㅂ What are the 4 RELIGIOUS OFFICIAL that introduce by Sultan Sharif Ali?
: 1. Khatib
  2. Kadhi
  3. Imam
  4. Mudim
(Example picture of an Imam)

ㅂ What are the responsibilities of Religious Official?
: > To enforce Syariah Law
  > To collect revenues
  > Mosque administration
(Masjid)

+LAND AND PEOPLE+
HEADS OF TRIBE
: Orang Kaya & Dato` --> incharge to make sure they have their loyalty to the Sultan.

THE MALAY CHIEFS
: Dato Petinggi, Dato Bandar & Dato Temenggong --> Incharge in Sarawak River.

MEMBER & ROYAL FAMILY
: Pengiran & Sharif --> authorities in Brunei

+DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION+
1. Kerajaan : Sultan
2. Kuripan : Wazir
3. Tulin : Royal Family

~BASIC OF ECONOMIC~
PROTECTORATES of Brunei
: # Taxes
  # Use of Brunei Ports

FEUDAL STATES
: # Supplies Good


~GOODS & JUNGLE PRODUCE BY NATIVES~
ㅎ Goods produce by NATIVES are;
                                                 ~ Nutmeg
                                                 ~ Bird Nest
                                                 ~ Spices
                                                 ~ Campor
(Example picture of Spices)


~THE MARKET FOR BRUNEI PRODUCTS~
ㅋ There are;
                  + Big (more) of Brunei Empire
                  + Control over Borneo Natives
                  + Big demand for Brunei products
                  + Role of Brunei as enter port trade


~INCOMES OF ROYAL FAMILY~
ㅅ How did Royal Family get their INCOMES?
: a) Personal Taxes
  b) Paying annual tributes
  c) Bungkar Sauh Tax
  d) Contributary Taxes


~THE HIERARCHY OF TRADITIONAL BRUNEI~
1) Sultan 
2) Wazir - Pg. Bendahara, Di-Gadong, Temenggong, Pemancha
3) Cheterias - Pg Shahbandar
4) Menteri Berchiris
5) Menteri Tidak Berchiris
6) Rakyat - lives in Brunei Town
7) Hamba - Feudal States (people who comes)
(Sultan surrounded by the Rakyat)


DONE BY;
NUR HANI AQILAH BINTI AZMI
Y9NSS1

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