Diplomatic Rivalry Among Western Powers Over Borneo.
- The western powers came to brunei when Brunei's power had begun to weaken.
- Brunei came into conflict with the Spanish government in Manila.
- In 1577 and 1580, the Spanish attacked and tried to conquer Brunei.
- In 1645 they conquered and ransacked Brunei Town.
- Result ; Spanish were unable to establish a lasting hold over Brunei or any part of Borneo.
DUTCH - First Attempt
- 1600 ; A Dutch admiral OLIVER VAN NOORT visited Brunei.
- The Dutch were not interested in North Borneo.
- why? ; They were more interested in the southern and western parts of Borneo.
- Result ; The Dutch set up factories in Banjarmasin (1603), Sambas (1610) and Soekadana (1922)
- Local people attacked and burnt the Dutch factories.
- Result ; The Dutch withdrew from Borneo.
DUTCH - Second Attempt
- Able to establish their control over the western and southern parts of Borneo at the end of 18th century.
Failed to establish a lasting hold over Borneo.
- political developments in Europe forced the Dutch to withdraw from Borneo.
- The Dutch had entered into the American War of independence in 1780
- Bankruptcy ruined the Dutch East Indies Company, making it impossible for them to manage their territories in Borneo.
1600 - English East India Company (EIC) was establish
- Failed to establish settlements along the coasts of Borneo.
- Aim ; to obtain spices from the Moluccas
- Failed ; The Dutch controlled the spice trade in the Molucass
- Result ; They were more interested in North Borneo
- why? ; It was on the sea route to china and, they needed a place for their ships to stop between the straits of Malacca and China.
1762 - The British captured Manila from the Spanish but returned it to Spain in 1764
1763 - Alexander Dalrymple obtained territories in North Borneo from the Sulu Sultanate.1773 - EIC set up a small factory in Balambangan
- Balambangan ; poorly managed and abandoned two years later when Sulu attacked and destroyed it.
- Why? ; Brunei needed British protection against Sulu.
- EIC Response? ; EIC was not interested in Labuan.
Reasons For The Increased British Interest in North Borneo In The 19th Century
- The founding of Singapore in 1819 and the formation of the straits settlements in 1826
- Increased trade with china which bring huge profits fr the British traders.
- After the signing of the Anglo Dutch Treaty in 1824, the Dutch and the British settled their territorial conflicts in the East. As Borneo was not mention in the treaty, Britain began to intervene in North Borneo.
- The British used the sea route linking the Straits of Malacca and China by way of North Borneo and the Sulu islands very often.
- Thus, it was important for the British to protect this sea routefrom falling into the hands of other foreign powers.
Done By ; Syafiq Aiman (: