1959 Written Constitution

Tuesday, 16 November 2010

Now the examination is over,but that’s not mean we’re done in history..:D
Did you get high marks in history subject,from this blog..
Hope you get high marks or pass..
Wait and see..

Sunday, 31 October 2010

Heyhey hello helloo..
Soon we have to sit for our history examination..
So to you all Good Luck..
Do your best!

From: 9nss1

Wednesday, 27 October 2010

Chapter 1: Brunei’s Social Structure, Political Systems and Economy.

  1. Social, Economic and Political Conditions in Brunei.

Reasons for the decline of Brunei in the 16th and 17th centuries:
a.     The kingdom of Mataram and Java and the Dutch began to spread their influence in Southern Borneo.
b.     The spread of the Spanish influence in Manila ( Philippines )
c.     The rise of Sulu sultanate in Southern Philippines.


Reasons for the spread of of Brunei’s influence in Northern Borneo and Sarawak until the end of the 19th century:
  1. The need of humans resources, which was the basis of the power of the Sultan and Royal family.
  2. Brunei’s position as a maritime trade centre in a Malay world which was heavily geared towards trade.

Main functions of a river mouth:
  1. The Brunei’s rulers imposed taxes on the natives who used their rivers.
  2. Therefore, the rivers became a source of income for the Brunei rulers.
  3. The native also supplied goods to the Malays who lived at the river mouths.

  1. The Hierachy of Traditional Administration in Brunei.

Position of the Sultan in the administration of the country:
  1. He was the head of government, religion and institution.
  2. In the social context, the Sultan also occupied the highest position.

The 4 Wazirs and their duties:
  1. Pengiran Bendahara – He was in charge of home affairs.
  2. Pengiran Di-Gadong – He was in charge of revenue and income.
  3. Pengiran Temenggong – He was in charge of maritime affairs and defence.
  4. Pengiran Pemancha – He was in charge of trade affairs.

There are TWO classes of Manteris;
               1) Manteri Berchiri.
2)      Manteri Tidak Berchiri.

There are THERE titles given to Manteris;
1)       Pehin,
2)      Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong; and
3)       Pehin Jawatan Dalam.
Pehin Orang Kaya Di-Gadong.

The TWO groups of Manteri Tidak Berchiri are Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.

The THREE titles of Manteri Hulubalang;
  1. Panglima,
  2. Pateh; and
  3. Damong.

TWO titles given to Manteri Pendalaman were Orang Kaya and Dato.

Difference between Manteri Berchiri and Manteri Tidak Berchiri;
  1. Manteri Berchiri were chosen from the Malay Aristocrats.  
  2. Manteri without official credentials were known as Manteri Tidak Berchiri.
  3. They were divided into TWO groups; Manteri Hulubalang and Manteri Pendalaman.
  4. The Manteri Hulubalang were Malays who lived near the palace.
  5. The title Manteri Pendalaman was reserved for the chiefs of tribes and those who had influence over the natives in the Brunei’s territories.
  6. They were given the titles of Orang Kaya and Dato.

Theme 1 : Investigating the Past.

1) History is the story of people and past events in a sequence of time.
2) We study history because; 1) helps us to understand the present and                  prepares us for the future, 2) helps us to explain our traditional customs and beliefs, 3) learn from the good examples of the past and try to avoid mistakes made by our predecessors.
3) Historians: A person who uses historical evidence to reconstruct the story of the past.
4) Archaeologist: A person who investigates what happened in the past.
5) Archive: A place where the official written records of a country are kept.
An archaeologist.
Old archive.

Brunei Museum.

Sultan Sharif Ali ( 1425 – 1432 )

  1. He was the 3rd Sultan of Brunei.
  2. Married the daughter of Sultan Ahmad.
  3. He come from Taif in Arabia and descendent of Prophet Muhammad.
  4. Also known as Sultan Berkat.
  5. His contributions: a) he built the first mosque in Brunei.
                                    b) created the Royal Emblem or Panji-Panji.
6. He died in 1432.

Sultan Bolkiah ( 1485 – 1524 )

1)       He was the 5th Sultan of Brunei.
2)      Also known as ‘ The Golden Age ‘ because, in his period, Brunei has the power to the Malay Archipelago.

Sultan Muhammad Hasan ( 1582 – 1598 )

  1. The 9th Sultan of Brunei.
  2. He introduced the first written code of laws known as ‘ Hukum Kanun ‘.
  3. He died in 1598.

The Seizure Of Limbang

*Limbang was the property of Sultan Hashim

*The seized of Limbang by Charles Brooke in 17 March 1890

*Limbang was rich agricultural in sago

*Loss of Limbang to Sarawak was badly effected the economic and political stability of Brunei

*Sultan Hashim Protested to British Goverment and demanded that Charles Brooke be punished

*The British Goverment send its new consul for Borneo and Trevenan to investigate the situation in Limbang

*The findings were invalid->only 15 of 33 local chiefs were present.

*The 15 local chief were Brooke's officer and the sultan refused to accept Trevenan

*Sir Cecil Clementismith,the British High commissioner suggested that Charles Brooke have to pay $6000 to Sultan Hashim as a result Sultan refused.

*The British Government ignored Sultan's refusal to cede Limbang

*In August 1895 the British Goverment embrassed by Sultan's refusal to accept compensation from Charles Brooke and announced that the matter was closed.

Malek J

Tuesday, 26 October 2010

Murder of Pg Muda Hashim & James Brooke became Rajah of Sarawak in August 1846

in 1845, Pg Muda Hashim returned from Sarawak to Brunei, accompanied by British naval captain, Sir Edward Belcher. Pg Temenggong Pg Anak Hashim, the son of SOAS II, plotted to kill Pg Muda Hashim. Then in 1846, Pg Muda Hashim and his family were murdered by  certain local chiefs. James Brooke was deeply shocked and angered when he learnt of the massacre.

James Brooke viewed the murdered of Pg Muda Hashim as a personal insult and a challenge to the prestige of Britain. He asked Thomas Cochrane, to punish Brunei. Brunei was unable to defend itself as the British better weapons and warships.Sultan accepted the strict terms of the treaty of 1846 imposed on him by James Brooke on behalf of Britain.

Monday, 25 October 2010

                         The Discovery of oil in Brunei.

  • The discovery of oil in seria 1929 was during the reign of sultan Ahmad tajjudin.
  • The revenue obtained from the oil help Brunei government to pay off its national debts by the year 1936
the discovery lead Brunei to became one of the wealthiest country in the world


The oil Exploration

  •     The exploration in Brunei started in 1899,when oil was discovered at Ayer Berkunchi near  kampung kasat in brunei district which lead to the drilling of well.
  • Unfortunately there was no sign of oil 
  • 1911,the BBPS(British Borneo petroleum syndicate limited)  & some other companies carried out an oil search.
  •  by the 1918 the other companies start to  gave up except THE ROYAL DUTCH SHELL


Oil discovery in seria field was first found by T.G COCHRANE & F.F MARRIOT  who Unexpectedly smell oil  at seria.

In April 1928,oil were reported in around seria area.these lead to the drilling of oil on 12 July 1928

It produced 5320 barrels of oil

On   19 august 1929  the second drilling of oil were carried out.

 Done By : Hisyam

Traditional Land Right System

-Before 1906,Brunei had its own traditional system land right.
-They were: Kerajaan, Kuripan and Tulin. 
-Owners of any of these land rights enjoyed the right to control the river as well as the inhabitants who live near them
-This system of territories administration was gradually abolished by the British when Brunei become full protectorate in 1906

Kerajaan or Kerajaan River:- Belong to Sultan crown property.Tend to be those flowing near the royal place.This Land provided Sultan with skilled labour and living necessities.It could neither be transferred nor passed down to one's heir(S).Only the next Sultan could controlled the Kerajaan.

Kuripan or Kuripan River:- Belong to Wazir.This land provided Wazir a steady source of income.There is no Wazir who did not have a river of its own.It was compulsory for Wazir who controlled the kuripan to contribute part of their income to the Sultan.It's same as the Kerajaan River that it could neither be tranferred nor passed down to one's heir(S).

Tulin or Tulin River:- Tulin:- Belong to Royal Family.Each of the Royal Family owned a Tulin.The owner of Tulin was not required to pay tax or tribute to Sultan.They allowed to hand over the ownership to their next kin.The Sultan's right over a Tulin were restricted to his own; his ownership was not based on his position as a Sultan, but rather as an individual.Tulin river were another source of income of Brunei Royal Family. 

Done by: Wong Jun Leong :)

Brunei National Anthem lyrics





BARIP suggested  a  national  anthem  for  BRUNEI. This led to the composition of   'ALLAH SELAMATKAN SULTAN'   by  AWANG BESAR SAGAP   who  was  assisted by P.M YUSOF.


The Early Development in Brunei

Nationalism in Brunei first surfaced among Malays who were educated in Malaya during the 1920s&1930s.It began in Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris(MPSI),located at Tanjong Malim in Perak.

This emergence of Malay nationalistic feelings had been influenced by ideas of nationalism awakening.For example,Indonesian nationalists were resisting the return of Dutch rule.These ideas were published in journals such as Kenchana,Waktu and Hikmat.

The Malays educated in Malaya established voluntary nationalist associations upon their return to Brunei.Such associations included the Kesatuan Melayu Brunei ,Persatuan Sahabat Pena Brunei,Persekutuan Guru-Guru Melayu Brunei,Barisan Pemuda and others.

Early Malay Nationalists:Brunei Students at MPSI and their activities.

The Brunei Government sent its first students to the MPSI in 1929&1930.Among these students were H.M Salleh,P.M Yusof,Jamil Umar,Abu Bakar Jambul and Pengiran Ali Pengiran Daud.

It was at MPSI that Brunei students gradually developed a more critical approach to colonial rule and become more radical in spirits.Some of them began to actively write and publish on Malay nationalism,Some of the well-known writers were

  • P.M. Yusof 
  • H.M. Salleh
  • Muhammad Ali Tamin

      Done by ; Att Musa (:

Oath Of Amanat

What was the Amanat? 
  • The sultan called for a meeting of his chiefs where by he made them to take an Oath. This Amanat was important in preserving Brunei's sovereignty by the next Sultan.
When was the Amanat was signed? and by who?
  • It was signed in 1885 and by Sultan Abdul Momin.
What is the reason why the Amanat was signed?
  • The amanat was signed so that no more territories will be taken from Brunei.
  • Sultan Abdul Momin became extremely worried about the situation in Brunei.
Why the Amanat is a failure?
  • Because, Brunei  did not have the Military power to enforce the Amanat while the BNBC had steam warships and more powerful gun.

Update by ; Hamid Drus

Coal Mine industry

                  The Coal Industry.

·         The coal concession in Muara was granted to William Cowie in 1883.
·         William Cowie transferred his concession to charles brooke.
·         Brooke start to employ workers for his coal mines in Buang tawar and in muara

                  Coal Production
·         Coal  is important before oil was discovered.
·         From 1888 to 1924 Muara coal mine produced more than 652,000 tones of coal
·         Coal mine at Buang Tawar stops in 1917.

Transportation of coal.

·         Coal was transported by steamers from Muara to Labuan and Singapore.
·         Local launches also and the Sarawak government steamers also shipped coal supplies such as Manila and Saigon.

Effects of the discovery of oil

·         Employment opportunities for local people.
·         More shops were opened.
·         Population increased to 1447 people by 1911
·         Muara developed to become a self sufficient town
·         Police force was formed by charles brooke to maintain law and order
·         Roads were built
·         Postal services were started and the town produced its own stamp.

Decline of Coal industry.

The Decline of  coal mine has two reason :-
·         Unstable prices after the first world war.
·         And, the discovery of oil at pulau berambang

                                                                                 FAIZ RAHMAN
The Reign of SOAS lll. (1950 - 1967)

  •  Pengiran Bendahara Omar Ali Saifuddien was proclaimed as the 28th Sultan of Brunei on 6 June 1950.
  •   He took the title of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien lll.
  •  When SOAS lll ascended to the throne it marked important changes in Brunei's political development.  

The Achievements of SOAS lll.

  •  Introduction of two National Development Plans.
  •  Improvement in infrastructure and the laid foundation for a strong and modern Brunei.
  •  Brought Brunei to international attentions and this earned him the title 'The Architect of Brunei Modern' .
* Achievements. 
  •  The signing of the 1959 constitution Agreement. - significant step towards independence of Brunei.
  •  He made the Malay language and Islam as the official language and religion of Brunei as stated in the 1959 constitution.
  • SOAS lll improved the welfare of the people of Brunei.
  • By Giving pension for the aged.
  • Giving allowances for the widows and their children. 
  •  Soas lll improved the education in Brunei.
    - set up primary and secondary school throughout the      country.
    -  set up the first English Medium School in 1951.
    -  Gave Scholarship to potential Students to Study overseas.  
  • set up the Brunei Malay Regiment in May 1961. - to strenghthen the Defence in Brunei.
  • He issued Brunei's first currency note in 1967. 
   - to replace the straits Dollar used since 1906.
   - this increased trade in Brunei.
  • SOAS lll had literary wrote a number of poems.
   - His poems conveyed his visions for the future.His ideas ,plans advice and guidance.
ect poems.
  • Syair Nasihat.
  • Syair Perkakas Perkarangan Rampaian Laila Syair.
  • Syair Laila Cinta.
  • Syair Lalai jenaka and ;
  • Syair kemerdekaan.
DONE BY : Nazri ^^

British North Borneo Company

  • Moses went to Hong Kong. He sold his right to William.J.Torrey.Torrey then formed the American Trading Company.
  • 4 jUN 1875, TORREY SOLD HIS RIGHT TO Baron Overbeck (Australian Consul General)
  • 1st june 1867, C.L.Moses was appointed as the American Consul-Genaral in Brunei.
  • 11 august 1865, A treaty was signed between Moses and Sultan Abd Momin.
  • Result ; Sultan Abd MOmin leased the area from Sulaman to Paitan rivers. (10years)
  • Advantages : Established its ruled over the territories and allow to lease somelands from other pangirans in Brunei
  • Disadvantages : British goverment still responsible for the Brunei foreign relusion and British goverment protect the local from company's explonation.


 Done by ; Azizi :D

Sunday, 24 October 2010

Increase Western Interest In Brunei

Diplomatic Rivalry Among Western Powers Over Borneo.
  • The western powers came to brunei when Brunei's power had begun to weaken. 

  • Brunei came into conflict with the Spanish government in Manila. 
  • In 1577 and 1580, the Spanish attacked and tried to conquer Brunei. 
  • In 1645 they conquered and ransacked Brunei Town.
  • Result ; Spanish were unable to establish a lasting hold over Brunei or any part of Borneo. 

DUTCH - First Attempt

  • 1600 ; A Dutch admiral OLIVER VAN NOORT visited Brunei.
  • The Dutch were not interested in North Borneo.
  • why? ; They were more interested in the southern and western parts of Borneo.
  • Result ; The Dutch set up factories in Banjarmasin (1603), Sambas (1610) and Soekadana (1922)
  • Local people attacked and burnt the Dutch factories.
  • Result ; The Dutch withdrew from Borneo.

DUTCH - Second Attempt

  • Able to establish their control over the western and southern parts of Borneo at the end of 18th century.

Failed to establish a lasting hold over Borneo.
  • political developments in Europe forced the Dutch to withdraw from Borneo.
  • The Dutch had entered into the American War of independence in 1780
  • Bankruptcy ruined the Dutch East Indies Company, making it impossible for them to manage their territories in Borneo.


1600 - English East India Company (EIC) was establish
  • Failed to establish settlements along the coasts of Borneo.
  • Aim ; to obtain spices from the Moluccas
  • Failed ; The Dutch controlled the spice trade in the Molucass
 1700 - EIC began to focus on the Chinese tea trade
  • Result ; They were more interested in North Borneo
  • why? ; It was on the sea route to china and, they needed a place for their ships to stop between the straits of Malacca and China.
 1761 - Alexander Dalrymple signed a Treaty of Alliance and Commerce with the Sultan of Sulu.
 1762 - The British captured Manila from the Spanish but returned it to Spain in 1764
 1763 - Alexander Dalrymple obtained territories in North Borneo from the Sulu Sultanate.
 1773 - EIC set up a small factory in Balambangan
  • Balambangan ; poorly managed and abandoned two years later when Sulu attacked and destroyed it.
1774 - Sultan of Brunei offered Labuan to the EIC
  • Why? ; Brunei needed British protection against Sulu.
  • EIC Response? ; EIC was not interested in Labuan.

Reasons For The Increased British Interest in North Borneo In The 19th Century
  • The founding of Singapore in 1819 and the formation of the straits settlements in 1826
  • Increased trade with china which bring huge profits fr the British traders.
  • After the signing of the Anglo Dutch Treaty in 1824, the Dutch and the British settled their territorial conflicts in the East. As Borneo was not mention in the treaty, Britain began to intervene in North Borneo.
  • The British used the sea route linking the Straits of Malacca and China by way of North Borneo and the Sulu islands very often.
  • Thus, it was important for the British to protect this sea routefrom falling into the hands of other foreign powers. 

Done By ; Syafiq Aiman (: