1959 Written Constitution

Wednesday, 20 October 2010

The Coal Industry

In 1883,the coal concession were granted to William Cowie.Later, he transfered the concession to Charles Brooke.Brooke started to employ workers in Buang Tawar (in Pulau Berambang)& another in Muara.

Coal Production:

Coal mining were very important to the state economy.From 1888 to 1924,coal mine produced more than 652,000 tonnes of coal.

Transportation of Coal:

From Muara to Labuan & Singapore the coal was transported by steamers.British ship,Norwegian & Japanese Navy ship purchased coal from Brunei.

Development of Muara Town:

Effects of the discovery of coal were :-

  • Population increased to 1,447 people by 1,911.
  • Muara developed to become a self-sufficient town.
  • Roads were built.
 On 31st December 1925,Brooke's monopoly on coal rights in Muara ended.

Decline of Coal Industry:

In 1920s,coal mining began to decline because:-

1) Unstable prices after the First World War.
  • A worldwide shortage of coal after the First World War.
  • The price fell down drastically from $17 per tonne in 1921 to $13 at the end of 1922.When prices fell as low as $9.50 per tonne in 1924, the Muara coal mine was closed down.
2) The discovery of oil in Pulau Berambang.
  • Oil was discovered on Pulau Berambang the early 1900s.In 1924, the Brunei government halted coal production.
Still,during the Japanese occupation from 1941-1945,the Japanese forced local people to work in the coal mines.

Done By : Siti Nor Mardhiatul Hazirah

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